1788

    1 January 1788 An Imperial edict requires all Austrian Jews to take on German surnames.

    In London, the name of The Daily Universal Register is changed to The Times or The Daily Universal Register by its founder John Walter.

    Fedra, a dramma per musica by Giovanni Paisiello (47) to words of Salvioni after Frugoni, is performed for the first time, at Teatro San Carlo, Naples.

    2 January 1788 The legislature of Georgia ratifies the Constitution of the United States by unanimous vote, the fourth state do so.

    3 January 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (31) dates the score to his Piano Sonata K.533 in Vienna.

    8 January 1788 Axur, Re d’Ormus, an opera tragicomico by Antonio Salieri (37) to words of da Ponte after Beaumarchais, is performed for the first time, at the Burgtheater, Vienna.  The production is to celebrate the marriage of Archduke Franz, nephew of the Emperor, to Princess Elizabeth Wilhelmine of Württemberg.  It is a great success.

    9 January 1788 The Hamburgischer unpartheyischer Correspondent publishes a review of Johann Nikolaus Forkel’s Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (74).

    9 January 1788 The Connecticut ratifying convention votes 128-40 to adopt the Constitution, the fifth state to do so.

    11 January 1788 Andromeda, an opera seria by Johann Friedrich Reichardt (35) to words of de’ Filistri da Caramondani, is performed for the first time, in the newly renovated Königliches Theater, Berlin before King Friedrich Wilhelm II.

    12 January 1788 Ifigenia in Aulide, an opera seria by Luigi Cherubini (27) to words of Moretti, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Regio, Turin.

    18 January 1788 The first of Captain Arthur Phillip’s ships reach Australia, at Botany Bay.  They carry convicts to found a colony.

    21 January 1788 Publication of Six String Quartets B.346-351 by Ignaz Pleyel (30) is announced in the Amsterdamsche Courant.  Publication of Pleyel’s Six String Trios B.404-409 and Six Keyboard Trios B.431-436 is announced in the Frankfurter Ristretto.

    22 January 1788 Ignaz Pleyel (30) marries Franziska Gabrielle Ignatia Lefebvre, daughter of the tapissier Stephen Laurence Lefebvre.

    Cyrus Griffin replaces Arthur St. Clair as President of the Congress of the United States.

    24 January 1788 Gustav Adolph och Ebba Brahe, a lyric drama by Georg Joseph Vogler (38) to words of Kellgren after Gustavus III, is performed for the first time, in the Royal Opera, Stockholm.

    26 January 1788 Penal settlements are established by the British at Sydney Cove, Australia, the first European establishment on the continent.

    28 January 1788 British Governor Arthur Philip lands at Sydney Cove, Australia.

    31 January 1788 Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) dies in Rome at the age of 67.

    4 February 1788 Six Duos for violin and cello B.501-506 by Ignaz Pleyel (30) are entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.

    6 February 1788 The Kärntnertortheater, Vienna is closed due in part to the dissolution of the German Opera Company.

    After almost a month of deliberation, the Massachusetts convention votes to ratify the Constitution of the United States by a 187-168-9 vote, the sixth state to do so.  Bells in Boston start to ring as joyous revelers fill the streets.

    7 February 1788 A local government is established in New South Wales.

    9 February 1788 Emperor Joseph II of Austria, desirous of Moldavia, Wallachia, Serbia, and Bosnia, comes to the side of Russia and declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

    Publication of a Sonata for piano or harpsichord with violin accompaniment B.573 by Ignaz Pleyel (30) is announced in the Frankfurter Ristretto.

    12 February 1788 Emperor Joseph II orders that Hofkapellmeister Giuseppe Bonno be retired at full pay.  He further orders that the position be filled by Antonio Salieri (37).  The Hofkapelle is put under the jurisdiction of theatre director Count Franz Xaver Orsini-Rosenberg.

    13 February 1788 The trial of Warren Hastings begins in the House of Lords on twenty counts of “High Crimes and Misdemeanours,” from his time as Governor-General of India from 1773 to 1784.  It will last seven years.

    17 February 1788 As it is bringing convicts from Port Jackson, Australia to Norfolk Island to found a colony there, Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball and the crew of HMS Supply make the first sighting of Lord Howe Island by Europeans.

    24 February 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) dates the score to his Piano Concerto no.26 K.537 in Vienna.

    29 February 1788 Emperor Joseph II departs Vienna to lead his troops against Turkey.

    1 March 1788 Le tuteur avare, an opéra bouffon by Giuseppe Cambini (42) to words of Gabiot de Salins, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre du Comte de Beaujolais, Paris.

    6 March 1788 23 settlers from Australia, 15 of them convicts, arrive on the uninhabited Norfolk Island to begin a new colony.

    La felicità inaspetata, an azione teatrale by Domenico Cimarosa (38) to words of Moretti, is performed for the first time at the Hermitage, St. Petersburg in the presence of Empress Yekaterina II.  The empress “wouldn’t give you 10 sous” for it, and generally disapproves of the music of her new maestro di cappella.

    7 March 1788 A month after Emperor Joseph II declared war, the German war song Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser sein K.539 for bass and orchestra by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) to words of Gleim is performed for the first time, in the Leopoldstädtertheater.

    19 March 1788 Publication of Three String Quartets B.343-345 and the Six Duos for two violins or two flutes B.507-512 by Ignaz Pleyel (30) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.

    21 March 1788 Over three-quarters of the buildings in the city of Nouveau Orléans are destroyed by fire.

    24 March 1788 Citizens of Rhode Island vote 2,708-237 to reject the new constitution.

    25 March 1788 Publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (28) keyboard sonata C.40 is announced in the Journal de Paris.

    2 April 1788 Publication of three string quintets K.406, 515, 516 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) is advertised in the Wiener Zeitung.

    The publication of the Federalist papers by New York newspapers is completed.

    11 April 1788 The Parlement of Paris tells King Louis XVI that “the will of the King alone is not enough (to make) law.”

    The Times of London reports the death of Russian Empress Yekaterina II.  They are in error.

    15 April 1788 An alliance is reached between Great Britain and the Netherlands at The Hague.

    20 April 1788 A Concerto for violin in D B.103 by Ignaz Pleyel (30) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.

    24 April 1788 Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes replaces Iyasu III Azequ as Emperor of Ethiopia.

    26 April 1788 La croisée, a comédie by Giuseppe Cambini (42), is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre du Comte de Beaujolais, Paris.

    28 April 1788 The Maryland ratifying convention approves the Constitution by a 63-11 vote, the seventh state to do so.

    29 April 1788 The Parlement of Paris refuses to sanction any further revenue collection.

    Arvire et Evelina, a tragédie lyrique by Antonio Sacchini (†1) to words of Guillard after Mason, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.  Left unfinished at the composer’s death, the work is completed by the Opéra orchestra conductor, Jean-Baptiste Rey.

    3 May 1788 The Parlement of Paris states that no future taxation may take place without the Estates-General and that arbitrary arrests are illegal.

    4 May 1788 As part of a program by Empress Yekaterina II to recruit able foreign naval commanders, American John Paul Jones arrives in St. Petersburg with the rank of Rear Admiral.

    6 May 1788 The two leading opponents of King Louis XVI, Eprémesnil and Guislard, are arrested.

    7 May 1788 Through the efforts of Emperor Joseph II, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s (32) Don Giovanni is performed in Vienna.  At a party following the opera, attended by most of the musical connoisseurs of the city, the work is praised at first, but soon an argument ensues over its shortcomings.  When asked for his opinion, Joseph Haydn (56) responds, “I cannot settle the argument.  But one thing I know--and that is that Mozart is the greatest composer the world now has.”  Mozart is not present.

    8 May 1788 King Louis XVI enforces the royal tax edicts in a lit de justice, backed by royal troops.  The Parlement of Paris is thereupon sent “on vacation.”  The judicial system is rearranged with much power removed from the Parlements.

    Volumes IV, V, and VI of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon are published.

    10 May 1788 The Royal Swedish Dramatic Theatre is granted a royal patent by King Gustaf III.

    18 May 1788 The name of the London newspaper The Times or The Daily Universal Register is changed to The Times by its founder John Walter.

    23 May 1788 The South Carolina convention ratifies the Constitution by a 149-73 vote, the eighth state to do so.  They also recommend four amendments.

    26 May 1788 Maximilian Procop Count of Törring-Jettenbach replaces Ludwig Joseph von Welden as Prince-Bishop of Freising and Anton Ignaz Joseph, Count Fugger-Glött as Prince-Bishop of Regensburg.

    28 May 1788 The Federalist Papers, written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay, appear in book form for the first time.

    30 May 1788 The Marylbone Cricket Club in London adopts the first codified rules of cricket.

    2 June 1788 The aria Un bacio di mano K.541 for bass by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) to words possibly by da Ponte is performed for the first time, in Anfossi’s (61) Le gelosie fortunate at the Burgtheater, Vienna.

    3 June 1788 Muzio Clementi’s (36) keyboard sonata op.24/1 is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.

    7 June 1788 The Lieutenant-Général of the Dauphiné, backed by two regiments, serves the Grenoble Parlement with orders to disperse.  Citizens take to the streets to prevent the magistrates from leaving.  As the regiments are called out to face them with orders not to fire, they are attacked by citizens throwing roof tiles from above.  One regiment opens fire, killing and wounding several citizens.  With no stomach for repression, the troops are removed.  Citizens begin pillaging government buildings and hoisting magistrates on their shoulders.  The day is forever known as The Day of the Tiles.

    9 June 1788 English explorer Joseph Banks founds the Africa Association to promote interest in trade and exploration of the interior of Africa.

    11 June 1788 Explorer Gerrasim Grigoriev Izmailov puts in at Yakutat Bay, Alaska, claiming the area for Russia and trading with the Tlingit Indians.

    13 June 1788 Tamira, a melodrama by Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg (28) to words of Huber, is performed for the first time.

    Daniel Shays is pardoned by Massachusetts Governor John Hancock, one year after his followers.

    14 June 1788 A group organized in Grenoble representing the three estates appeals directly to King Louis XVI.  They request the restoration of the Parlement and suspension of the new reforms, the calling of the Estates of the Dauphiné with “free elections” to choose members to that body.  They also request that the numbers of the Third Estate be equal to the other two combined.

    15 June 1788 Publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (28) three piano sonatas C.41-43 is announced in the Journal de Paris.

    17 June 1788 After nine years in Europe in the service of his country, John Adams returns home to Boston.  While away he negotiated loans from the Dutch, negotiated and signed the 1783 Treaty of Paris ensuring the independence of the United States, and served as the first US minister to Great Britain.  He traveled over 45,000 km in this service, more than any important American of his day.

    18 June 1788 Two British ships returning from Botany Bay, the Charlotte and the Scarborough, captained by Thomas Gilbert and John Marshall respectively, become the first Europeans to see the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati).

    Russian naval forces defeat the Turks in the Bug-Dnieper estuary.

    19 June 1788 In Pau, in the Pyrenees, an angry mob breaks into the Palais de Justice demanding that the Parlement be reinstated.

    20 June 1788 Colas et Colette, an opéra bouffon by Giuseppe Cambini (42), is performed for the first time, in Théâtre du Comte du Beaujolais, Paris.

    21 June 1788 In spite of a new French military commander, a second assembly at the Château de Vizille near Grenoble, made up of 276 third estate, 50 clergy and 165 nobility, elects Comte de Morgues as president, Jean-Joseph Mounier, secretary.

    The New Hampshire ratifying convention approves the Constitution of the United States by a 57-47 vote, the ninth state to do so.  The ratification of two-thirds of the 13 states having been achieved, the Constitution goes into effect.

    22 June 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) dates the score to his Piano Trio K.542 in Vienna.

    25 June 1788 An advertisement appears in the Weiner Zeitung announcing that the publication of three string quintets (K.406, 515, 516) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) will be postponed from 1 July 1788 to 1 January 1789.  The sale of subscriptions has been poor.

    The Virginia ratifying convention approves the Constitution of the United States by an 89-79 vote, the tenth state to do so.

    26 June 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) dates the score to his Symphony no.39 K.543, Piano Sonata K.545, and his String Quartet K.499 in Vienna.

    Le rival confident, a comédie mise en musique by André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry (47) to words of Forgeot, is performed for the first time, at the Comédie-Italienne, Paris.

    27 June 1788 King Gustaf III of Sweden stages an “attack” by Russia on the border outpost of Puumala in order to create support for a war which the king hopes will silence his domestic opposition.

    28 June 1788 Russian naval forces defeat the Turks in the Bug-Dnieper estuary for a second time.

    29 June 1788 The fourth child of Constanze and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32), Theresia, dies in Vienna at the age of six months.

    1 July 1788 Empress Yekaterina II of Russia receives the demand by King Gustaf III of Sweden that the Russian ambassador be removed.

    2 July 1788 Die Ährenleserin, a singspiel by Michael Haydn (50) to words of Weisse, is performed for the first time.

    3 July 1788 Swedish forces bombard Nyslott (Savonlinna, Finland), a Russian border fort.

    5 July 1788 Loménie de Brienne, head of the French Council of Finances, publishes a decree of the council asking all Frenchmen for information on how to convene and manage the Estates-General.  It has not been done since 1614.

    8 July 1788 A committee of the United States Congress reports suggesting that Presidential electors be chosen on the first Wednesday in December and that they vote on the first Wednesday in January.  The government should then convene on the first Wednesday in February.  No place for the new government is decided on since New York has still not ratified the Constitution.

    10 July 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) dates the score to his Violin Sonata K.547 in Vienna.

    Atene edificata, a cantata by Domenico Cimarosa (38) to words of Moretti for four solo voices and chorus, is performed for the first time, at the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

    11 July 1788 Russia declares war on Sweden.

    13 July 1788 The Russian declaration of war on Sweden is made public.

    A furious hailstorm destroys crops across France.  Food prices will skyrocket.  It does not improve the mood of the people towards their government.

    14 July 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) dates the score to his Piano Trio K.548 in Vienna.

    17 July 1788 In the Battle of Hogland (Gogland Island, Russia), Swedish and Russian naval forces battle in the approaches to St. Petersburg.  In numbers, the battle is a draw, but the Russians prevent the planned Swedish advance.

    An official document dated today dismisses Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (48) as Amtshauptmann of Freiwaldau (Jeseník), but other sources say he will continue to serve until 1795.

    23 July 1788 A grand parade takes place in New York City to celebrate the ratification of the Constitution.  It is a mile and a half long and contains ten sections, one for each of the ratifying states.

    25 July 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) dates the score to his Symphony no.40 K.550 in Vienna.

    26 July 1788 The New York ratifying convention approves the Constitution of the United States by a 30-27 vote, the eleventh state to do so.  It simultaneously approves explanatory and recommended amendments.

    29 July 1788 Emperor Joseph II announces his decision to dissolve his opera buffa company.

    1 August 1788 Mohammad Bidarbakht ebn Ahmad Shah replaces Jalal ad-Din Abu’l Mozaffar Mohammad Shah Alam II Padshah as Emperor of India.

    2 August 1788 King Louis XVI agrees to assemble the Estates of Dauphiné at Romans.

    Thomas Gainsborough dies in London at the age of 61.

    The North Carolina ratifying convention votes not to approve the Constitution for the time being.

    7 August 1788 Turkish forces invades the Banat (around Timisoara, Romania).

    8 August 1788 Loménie de Brienne, Archbishop of Toulouse, head of the Council of Finances, announces that the Estates-General will convene on 1 May 1789.

    10 August 1788 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) dates the score to his Symphony no.41”Jupiter” K.551 in Vienna.

    13 August 1788 In a treaty concluded at Berlin, Prussia adheres to the Great Britain-Netherlands alliance forming the Triple Alliance for peace in Europe.

    16 August 1788 The French Royal Council decrees that henceforth, 40% of the payments on pensions and rentes will be in treasury notes, not cash.

    17 August 1788 Due to the edict of yesterday, the Caisse d’Escompte and the Paris Bourse are run by thousands of bondholders and close for fear of violence.  The run will last three days.

    26 men found a settlement on the north side of the Ohio River they call Losantiville.  In 1790, the Governor of the Northwest Territory, Arthur St. Clair, will rename the settlement after the Revolutionary War veterans organization, the Society of the Cincinnati.

    18 August 1788 The French government rescinds the order of 16 August.

    22 August 1788 A British settlement is established in Sierra Leone as a home for freed slaves.  It is called Freetown.

    24 August 1788 King Louis XVI recalls Jacques Necker as Minister of Finance.

    25 August 1788 Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, Archbishop of Toulouse, resigns as head of the French Council of Finances.  10,000 people fill the Palais Royal cheering and exploding firecrackers.  Riots will go on for days.

    27 August 1788 The trial of William (Deacon) Brodie begins in Edinburgh.  He is a well-known cabinet maker and locksmith who made impressions of keys of his wealthy clients and used them to steal, maintaining a sumptuous clandestine lifestyle.

    8 September 1788 Muzio Clementi’s (36) three piano trios op.21 are entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.

    10 September 1788 Il talismano, a dramma giocoso by Antonio Salieri (38) (Act I) and Giacomo Rust (Acts II&III)  to words of Goldoni and da Ponte, is performed completely for the first time, in the Burgtheater, Vienna.  It is a great success.  See 21 August 1779.

    12 September 1788 Publication of the String Quartet B.352 by Ignaz Pleyel (31) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.

    13 September 1788 The Confederation Congress officially declares that the Constitution has been ratified.  The first Wednesday in January shall be the day to choose presidential electors.  The first Wednesday in February shall be the day that the electors vote for president.  The new government shall convene in New York on the first Wednesday in March.  The vote is 9-0, Maryland and Delaware refusing to vote, while the Congressmen of North Carolina and Rhode Island have already left New York.

    17 September 1788 An Austrian army of about 100,000, sent against the Turks and led by Emperor Joseph II personally, begins battling itself at Karansebes (Caransebes, Romania).  Mass confusion, abetted by darkness, a considerable amount of schnapps and an army made up of several different linguistic groups, results in approximately 10,000 killed or wounded.  The survivors flee in panic to the north, afraid the Turks are attacking.  The Turkish army does not actually arrive for two days.

    22 September 1788 Publication of Three String Quintets B.280-282 by Ignaz Pleyel (31) is announced in the Frankfurter Ristretto.

    23 September 1788 The Parlement of Paris is reinstated by King Louis, to general celebration.

    24 September 1788 A combined Danish-Norwegian force invades Sweden in support of Russia, moving towards Bohuslän.

    25 September 1788 The Parlement of Paris announces that the Estates-General will be convened in the proportion of 1614, contrary to popular demands.

    27 September 1788 Publication of the Trio for piano, clarinet, and viola K.498 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.

    29 September 1788 A combined Danish-Norwegian invasion force defeats the Swedes at Kvistumbro near Göteborg.

    1 October 1788 William (Deacon) Brodie is hanged in Edinburgh, together with his accomplice, George Smith.

    7 October 1788 Hay de Bonteville, Bishop of Grenoble, who professed support for the Grenoblois but secretly connived with the government, goes into his study, burns his papers, loads his gun, puts the barrel in his mouth and pulls the trigger.

    10 October 1788 The Continental Congress of the United States takes its last vote.  After this day, although some members do appear, the Congress never reaches a quorum.

    16 October 1788 Jalal ad-Din Abu’l Mozaffar Mohammad Shah Alam II Padshah replaces Mohammad Bidarbakht ebn Ahmad Shah as Emperor of India.

    John Soane becomes architect to the Bank of England, a position he will hold for 45 years.  During that time, he will rebuild the bank and enlarge it.

    18 October 1788 Giuseppe Cambini’s (42) opera bouffon Le bon pére to words of Le Pitre is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre du Comte de Beaujolais, Paris.

    27 October 1788 Publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (28) Petits airs comus, variés pour le clavecin ou forte piano C.44-49 is announced in the Journal de Paris.

    1 November 1788 Muzio Clementi’s (36) three piano trios op.22 are entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.

    The United States Confederation Congress adjourns for the last time.

    5 November 1788 King George III of Great Britain suffers his first reported bout of madness.  He physically attacks the Prince of Wales and attempts to push his head into a wall.  The King is restrained and placed in a straight jacket and later other restraints are devised.  By next April he will be well enough to resume his duties.

    6 November 1788 In the Treaty of Uddevalla, Denmark agrees to evacuate all territory it has won from Sweden since 24 September.

    12 November 1788 Publication of the Piano Trio K.502 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (32) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.

    Le mari comme il les faudrait tous, ou La nouvelle école des maris, an opéra-comique by François-André Danican-Philidor (62) to words of de Senne, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre du Comte de Beaujolais, Paris.

    18 November 1788 Adalbert III von Herstal replaces Heinrich VIII von Bibra as Prince-Bishop of Fulda.

    25 November 1788 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (74) writes his last extant letter, to Johann Jacob Heinrich Westphal.  He mentions that he has been sick for almost two months but that things are getting better.

    28 November 1788 Friedrich Wilhelm replaces Karl Christian as Prince of Nassau-Weilburg.

    1 December 1788 Spain allows for limited use of the Mississippi by US citizens.

    2 December 1788 Démophon, a tragédie lyrique by Luigi Cherubini (28) to words of Marmontel after Metastasio, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.  It is not successful.

    5 December 1788 Emperor Joseph II returns to Vienna from the war against Turkey.

    13 December 1788 King Carlos III of Spain dies in Madrid and is succeeded by his son, Carlos IV.

    14 December 1788 22:00  Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach dies of a “chest ailment” in Hamburg, aged 74 years, nine months and six days.

    15 December 1788 Luís Pinto de Sousa Coutinho, visconde de Balsemão replaces Tomás Xavier Teles da Silva, marquês de Ponte Lima as Secretary of State (prime minister) of Portugal.

    17 December 1788 Chinese forces capture the Vietnamese capital of Thang Long (Hanoi).

    After a long siege, Russian forces capture Ochakov near the mouth of the Bug from Turkey.  Russian troops thereupon engage in a massacre of the inhabitants of the town.

    Samuel Wesley (22) becomes a freemason in London.

    19 December 1788 The earthly remains of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach are laid to rest in the vault of St. Michael’s Church, Hamburg.

    23 December 1788 The General Assembly of Maryland votes to cede ten sq. mi. of its territory for a federal capital district.

    27 December 1788 The French government decrees that the Third Estate will have double representation in the Estates-General but does not order votes by head, causing general confusion. 

    ©2004-2013 Paul Scharfenberger

    4 July 2013


    Last Updated (Thursday, 04 July 2013 05:45)